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Toxicological and Pharmacological Profile of Amanita muscaria: A Rising Opportunity for Biomedicine


Amanita muscaria, commonly known as fly agaric, is a basidiomycete mushroom with a rich history and a wide range of pharmacological and toxicological properties. This review aims to explore the morphology, chemical content, toxicological and pharmacological characteristics, and potential uses of Amanita muscaria in modern medicine.

Morphology and Distribution

Amanita muscaria belongs to the Amanita genus and is distributed worldwide, primarily in conifer and deciduous woodlands of the Northern Hemisphere. The cap of A. muscaria can range in color from orange to yellow, with some populations exhibiting consistently yellow or white caps. The gills are narrow and white, and the stipe has a skirt-like annulus and a variable-shaped bulb.

Chemical Composition

Amanita muscaria contains several bioactive compounds, including ibotenic acid, muscimol, muscarine, and various pigments. Ibotenic acid is converted to muscimol in the body and is responsible for the mushroom's hallucinogenic effects. Muscarine is a cholinergic agonist that contributes to the overall activity of A. muscaria. The pigments in A. muscaria give the mushroom its characteristic red-orange color.

Toxicological Effects

Consuming Amanita muscaria can lead to a condition known as 'pantherina-muscaria' poisoning syndrome, which resembles alcoholic intoxication. Symptoms include dizziness, nausea, tiredness, visual and auditory hypersensitivity, hallucinations, and altered perception of time. The toxicity of A. muscaria is primarily attributed to the neurotoxic effects of ibotenic acid and muscimol.

Pharmacological Potential

Despite its toxic effects, Amanita muscaria has also shown potential pharmacological benefits. Some studies suggest that A. muscaria extracts may have a neuroprotective role in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. The mushroom has also demonstrated a potent role in the treatment of cerebral ischemia and other socially significant health conditions.


Amanita muscaria offers a wide range of pharmacological and toxicological properties, making it a promising candidate for biomedical research. Its potential neuroprotective, anticarcinogenic, and antioxidant effects warrant further investigation. However, the toxic effects of A. muscaria emphasize the need for careful administration and supervision. Mycotherapy, the use of mushrooms for therapeutic purposes, holds great potential for the development of new drugs and treatment strategies in the future.


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